(newest at the top) Some links may be broken.
|March 29||Mark Sakamoto’s book “Forgiveness” is the winner of CBC’s Canada Reads 2018 competition! Read more about this prestigious honour here. Congratulations, Mark!|
|March 25||New service - Online Registration and Payment! Check out our Online Services: register/renew membership and pay dues online.|
|March 13||Read about what might be your last chance to acquire a Memorial Cross.|
|March 10||Want to commemorate the members of 'C' Force at your local Legion, school or retirement home? We now offer a Commemorative Plaque which, in pictures and text, provides the background information on the battle, both to commemorate and educate. Read more...|
|March 9||The Spring 2018 Edition of our Newsletter WASURERU-NAI is available for your enjoyment on our digital newsstand!|
|March 7||Board of Directors Meetings - Summary for Feb posted|
We know our members want to keep up to date with what's going
on, so we've added a new feature to our online content -
of Directors Meetings - Summaries. Think of it as the "Coles
Notes" version of the meeting. If you have a question or
comment, you can use the link you'll find at the bottom of the
You can easily access this service anytime, by hovering the "About Us" link near the top of your browser window and selecting "View Minutes and Summaries".
From Mike Babin:
You are probably familiar with the CBC’s Canada Reads program. Each year several books are selected, and each assigned to a well-known person. Those people then “defend” their book in a debate-like format which is broadcast. Past winners of the contest have experienced very large increases in copies sold. You can read more about the program here.
One of this year’s five contenders is “Forgiveness: A Gift from my Grandparents”, by Mark Sakamoto. Ralph MacLean is the central character in the book. We should be proud of Mark for researching and writing this excellent book, and for its choice as a Canada Reads finalist.
|Jan 29||Read Philip Cracknell's latest blog topic: "Click the link to follow the post on current condition of the ruins of West Brigade HQ at WNC Gap. The graffiti has been cleaned up, but the site is untidy and dangerous because of a tree that looks like it may collapse at any moment. The bunker that may have been the actual command bunker used by Brigadier Lawson is buried but parts of it can be seen above ground including the ventilation shaft. The article shows some older photographs from 1947 which I have annotated, and which show what the area would have looked like in December 1941." West Brigade HQ - current condition of war structures January 2018|
|Dec 12||The Winter Edition (online) of our National Newsletter WASURERU-NAI is ready for you. Bonus content!|
|26 Nov||Read the Victoria News and Lookout articles featuring the presentation of a plaque at his Legion Branch to Hong Kong Veteran Gerry Gerrard in recognition of his long service.|
Wine Cellar defences in Hong Kong
Read this interesting article in the South China Morning Post - A second world war ammunition storage bunker, that held off the Japanese invaders even after the fall of Hong Kong, was converted into a premium storage facility for fine wines, winning a Unesco heritage award in the process
HKVCA Ontario is dedicating a commemorative plaque on Sunday, November 5, 2017 in Mississauga in the area still known as Port Credit. You (& your family and friends) are cordially invited. Details on our events calendar
In Memory of Ian DoullWe in the HKVCA community were shocked and saddened to hear of the sudden passing of our Secretary, Ian Doull. Ian had been involved for years in our organization and contributed so much. Ian’s dad, Lloyd Doull, a HK veteran, was President of the HKVA several years ago and his uncle, Llewellyn (Bill) Doull, father of Murray Doull, was also a Royal Rifle and Hong Kong veteran. Ian worked tirelessly for the organization as Secretary and giving bilingual educational presentations in the Ottawa area. Ian had recently retired from Parks Canada where he worked as a historian, specializing in historic sites in the Maritimes. He seldom missed a chance to return to see his many friends in Nova Scotia, and especially Annapolis Royal where he had done so much research. Ian will be sadly missed by his two daughters Sarah and Laurie (Aaron), his two grandchildren Rebecca and Zev and his brother Jim (Jill). He also leaves to mourn his dear friend Elizabeth Waite.
Rest in peace Ian.
|Oct 6||Looking for a way to commemorate a member of 'C' Force from your community? Ontario Region has created the HKVCA Commemorative Plaque and are working with service groups such as the Royal Canadian Legion on mounting it in branches, care homes, etc. Here's an example. Instructions and specifications are available.|
|Sept 13||Convention photo album created. Please send us your photos along with captions, and we'll add them to the album.|
|Sept 6||Due to lack of submitted content there will be no Autumn Edition of our National Newsletter WASURERU-NAI published. Next edition will be published in December.|
|Aug 27||Annual General Meeting Minutes (draft) and all reports have been posted. Read about what we've done over the past year, what we're currently working on, and our plans for the next two years.|
Listen to the
CBC interview with Andy Flanagan on the
subject of his book: The Endless Battle.
Excerpt from the CBC web page:
"A soldier's story, a Belledune man is honors his father with a book. Flanagan wrote about the Battle of Hong Kong. It's called Endless Battle: The Fall of Hong Kong and Canadian POWs in Imperial Japan."
Missed the HKVCA 2017 Convention?
See some of the highlights in photos by joining our Facebook discussion.
|June 28||For a different perspective on the Battle of Hong Kong, read “Stranger in My Heart”, about a British soldier who fought in the battle, was imprisoned at Sham Shui Po, and managed to escape from there in 1942 to make his way across China. The author, his daughter, retraces the path he took to freedom. You can find out more about the book here.|
|June 22||Essays and photos of the winners of our annual Writing Competion now posted in the Teachers' Zone. Well done to all participants!|
|June 22||The latest edition of Philip Cracknell's Blog has been published. Its topic is Following the route taken by 'D' Coy Royal Rifles of Canada on Saturday 20th December 1941 The level of detail is amazing and will delight those who wish to better understand exactly what happened in the various phases of the battle.|
|June 7||The Summer Edition of our quarterly newsletter WASURERU-NAI is available for your reading pleasure.|
|May 20||Check out Philip Cracknell's latest blog entry which focuses on the watch of a 'C' Force soldier that was found 75 years later, and was finally returned to his family in Canada.|
|Apr 11||Many of our most popular pages are now converted to the new look. We hope you like it. Comments always welcome (use the Contact Us link at the top right of most of our pages), especially if you find we missed something, or there is a broken link.|
|Apr 6||Don't Forget - We're looking for your nominations to the Board of Directors. The deadline is 30 April. Visit our nominations page and follow the easy instructions.|
|Mar 28||From Philip Cracknell's blog: some interesting biographies and some information on the Canadians who fought at Mt Parker. Also World War II defensive structures - graffiti and clean-up.|
|Mar 09||The Spring edition of our newsletter "WASURERU-NAI" is now online. Standard mail copy will be in the mail tomorrow.|
|Feb 22||From Philip Cracknell's blog: Updated story about two houses "Erinville" and "Cash's Bungalow". It tells the story of who lived there and what happened around these two houses on 21st December 1941 during the Battle for Hong Kong.|
|Feb 12||We've updated our 'C' Force site with our new menu and navigation system. Take a look and tell us what you think. Your comments are valuable, as we'll be changing all our sites to the new look in the coming weeks.|
|Jan 28||Poster - map illustrating the Battle of Hong Kong now available at our Store (scroll down to bottom of page.)|
|Jan 26||Draft Annual Meeting Minutes for 2016 now posted.|
|Jan 18||Article in Time: How Untrained Canadian Troops Fought and Died in the Defense of Hong Kong|
|Dec 28||From the NY Times on Dec 23: A Doomed Battle for Hong Kong, With Only Medals Left 75 Years Later|
|Dec 22||Unholy Christmases - Burke Penny's latest blog entry|
|Dec 15||Photo Gallery of the Memorial Wall Ceremony of 10 Dec now available, compliments of Richard Lawrence Photography|
|Dec 12||Just a reminder that our online presence on Facebook is growing by the day. Dan James is adding articles and links regularly, and we've now surpassed 700 "Likes". That means that over 700 people are aware of us, and are interested in what we do. If you want to keep up with HKVCA-related activities and help us spread the word, follow-us on Facebook.|
|Dec 8||Dec 6: Hong Kong Veteran Fred Cooper (RRC) accepts 75th anniversary tribute at Ontario Legislature|
|Dec 7||Our Winter Edition of our National Newsletter now online. Enjoy!|
|Nov 28||Articles focused on the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Hong Kong in Society Pages magazine (PDF).|
|Nov 24||Symposium on the Battle of Hong Kong 75th Anniversary - Dec 8th at the University of Toronto|
|Nov 16||Just added to our site: Lionel Hurd's story and background of the times - written by Fred Hurd, son. See also No honour in war crimes says Gravenhurst man, son of a POW in the Gravenhurst Banner|
|Nov 12||Global News interview with George Peterson (first video), then a following video with Gerry Gerrard and BC Director Gerry Tuppert|
The November issue of Legion Magazine contains an interesting
article titled "Hong Kong Craftsmen". It discusses how POWs
turned scraps into works of art. Individuals such as Frank
Christensen, Arthur Pifher and Richard Maze are mentioned.
There is no online link to the article, so for the present you'll have to run down a paper copy.
|Oct 26||Video of a presentation on the Battle of Hong Kong by Bill Lake, military historian in Hong Kong, to the Canadian curriculum schools in Hong Kong and Macao. 50 mins. Some good background and details that you might not have known. Worth a watch.|
|Nov 4 (updated on Nov 8)||
Day Events and Links:
We have updated our
Wall section of the web, adding improved photos of the wall
panels (look for the List of Names link). All names are now
readable. Check out
archives to get a look at our original wall design.
Our Gallery site has also been updated, and includes recent site photos.
|Sept 30||Ceremony - Sept 29th in Winnipeg- Unveiling of the Silver Coin Commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Hong Kong. Over 80 people attended. Check out the post and photos on Facebook and on our Image Gallery.|
|Sept 7||Forgotten Heroes Gala in Edmonton in Oct. Details. (PDF)|
|Sept 30||Our quarterly newsletter "Autumn 2016" edition is available online. Paper version is in the mail as of 28 Sep.|
|Sept 18||Atlantic Region Annual Reunion Oct 14-16- Invitation and Details (PDF)|
|Sept 5||A video by OutFocus Productions was made during the HKVCA visit to Hong Kong last Dec. Cameras and interviewers followed our group as we toured various sites including Sai Wan cemetery, Tony Banham's battlefield tour, and Stanley cemetery. Interviews with HK Veteran Ralph Maclean and HKVCA members make for compelling content. Mostly in English, with sub-titles. Highly recommended.|
|Sept 6||PM Trudeau Honours Canadian War Dead in Hong Kong (CBC News)|
|July 24||We now have a HKVCA Flag! Available in banner and flag styles. Now ready for your purchase through our store.|
|July 11||Thanks to the efforts of Phil Doddridge and Tom Eden we now have copies of the HKVA Quebec-Maritimes Branch newsletters (1993 - 2001) available online. Interesting reading!|
|June 22||Breanna Ross, has produced a video documentary on her grandfather and his two brothers -- all involved in the Second World War. One of the brothers is the late Sgt. Lance Ross of the RRC -- well-known among all Hong Kong vets. Very professional and moving - highly recommended.|
|June 13||Our National Newsletter "Wasureru-Nai" is now available for online reading. Paper copies are in the mail.|
|June 13||Board of Directors elections are coming up. Please visit our Nomination page and submit your names by July 8.|
Updated our Gallery site with
Les Voltigeurs de Québec Honour Veterans of the Battle of Hong Kong
|June 3||Passing of Les Canivet: "My Grandpa" - tribute by Hannah Veardry given at Les Canivet's funeral|
From Emmie Flanagan, Director Atlantic Region:
Kohal is very passionate about this topic, and wants to see this part of forgotten history added to the NB Education curriculum.
|May 26||Do you have an item you wish published in our June newsletter? Make sure to send it to the editor before the beginning of June|
|Apr 18||Check out our Reading Room - the book Beyond the Call has been reduced in price.|
|Apr 10||Details on Battle of Hong Kong Commemoration in Quebec City - May 7|
|Apr 5||We have a new newsletter editor - Tom Eden. Welcome Tom! His first newsletter will be published in June. More to follow.|
|Apr 5||Our new newsletter editor, Tom Eden has shared some links that you may want to visit:|
|Jan 26||The Winter edition of our National Newsletter "WASURERU-NAI" has been delayed. We will update our members when a confirmed date is known.|
|Feb 3||Our Writing Contest Portraits of Valour is on hiatus for the school year 2015-16. We will resume again next year.|
|Dec 21||The report from our recent commemorative trip to Hong Kong and Japan now available.|
|Dec 14||Link to Tony Banham's article A Historiography of C Force added to our Suggested Reading page. Highly recommended for those who wish to put the writings on the Canadian contribution to the defence of Hong Kong in context.|
|Dec 13||Commemorative trip to Hong Kong and Japan a success! 31 of us created memories and remembered the members of 'C' Force during our recent trip. Watch for photos and a trip report in the near future. Pictured is Ralph MacLean who was our inspiration during the trip. We had to strap him in to slow him down!|
|Dec 5||Photos of our Annual Memorial Ceremony at the "C" Force Memorial Wall on December 5th.|
|Nov 25||Article on POW communications added to our Submissions collection|
|Nov 10||Read the article about our own Vince Lopata from the Clipper Weekly.|
|Oct 30||Check out our Facebook page - lots of activity, especially focused on Remembrance Day.|
|Oct 30||Memoirs of Don MacPherson, WG, added to our site.|
|Oct 16||We've updated and expanded our Newspaper Snippets pages to include content from the Sherbrooke Daily Record.|
Suggested reading: A Lesson in Perspective
|Sep 27||Speech by Prof Farquharson, Burma vet, at Remembrance Ceremony in Ottawa, August 2015 added to our Submissions page, along with audio link|
|Sep 22||Our Fall Edition of Wasureru-Nai is now available for reading online|
|Sep 17||Site update: all Last Post information, previously available here, has now been copied to our 'C' Force web site - use the Individual Record Search service to see individual last post info.|
|Sep 15||Legion Wall of Honour. Submit a photo and information of a veteran you know, for display on Nov 11th|
|Sep 13||China Peace Medal Awarded to Battle of Hong Kong Veteran and Book Author, by Austen Cambon, from eVeritas|
Ward Stepanchuk, son of Nicholas Stepanchuk, RRC. Passed away June 19th, 2015. Niagara Ontario region member
Angie Bourbonniere, wife of Armand Bourbonniere. passed away Friday July 31
Submitted by Aileen Lam.
See more updates on our HKVCA Facebook Community page.
|Aug 26||Article from Austen Cambon - The Chinese Community in Toronto Commemorates the end of the war in the Pacific and the historic Battle of Hong Kong.|
|Aug 26||Richard Lawrence, professional photographer, has kindly posted photo collections: Hong Kong Memorial Wall Ceremony and War Memorial Ceremony|
|Aug 23||Link to RRC plaque added to the Submissions page|
|Aug 22||Check our Galleries site for photos of the VJ Ceremonies in Ottawa Captions needed!|
|Aug 21||Visit us on Facebook to see VJ day and convention news.|
|Aug 21||Andy Flanagan's VJ day speech (PDF) in Fredericton (Andy is the son of James Andrew Flanagan, RRC). CTV Video|
|Aug 18||Minister's VJ Day speech (PDF)|
|Aug 18||Updated our Galleries (Photo) site with photos from the Gander Dedication ceremony in Newfoundland.|
|Aug 11||Check out Burke Penny's (nephew of Don Penny, RCCS) blog - his latest post is in honour of the 70th anniversary of VJ Day. It's about the POWs' response to the end of the war.|
|Aug 6||We've decided to combine a late summer newsletter "Wasureru-Nai" with an early Fall edition that will report on the convention. If you're planning to attend, we hope you'll provide some of your impressions to be included. Look for the next edition in Sept.|
|July 24||A must-read! Article in today's Globe and Mail: Lacking proof, Mitsubishi unwilling to apologize to Canadian POWs|
Murdena Claricoates, widow of Ronald Claricoates, RRC, May 24th
June Naylor, widow of Howard E Naylor Sr. (RCCS), Apr 26
|July 28||The deadline for registering for the upcoming Commemoration in Ottawa is being extended to July 31st. Please get your forms in to the registrar, Ian Englehart, as soon as possible. (Use the link to the right)|
|July 17||Article: Japanese firm to make landmark apology to U.S. POWs (Globe and Mail)|
|July 15||Nomination forms for the new Board of Directors should have been received by all members whether by snail mail or email. If you haven't received any notification by now please let us know.|
|July 15||All repairs to the Memorial Wall have been completed and it has been turned over the National Capital Commission (NCC).|
|May 9||Added information about the book Hoping in Hell, to our Suggested Reading page|
Don't forget to nominate your choice for our new Board of Directors slate. See our newsletter page for details. Deadline is Apr 30th.
George MacDonell is now on Facebook. Check out his page and articles.
On our submissions page:
Far East and the Prosecution of
Japanese “Minor” War Crimes by Mark Sweeney (PDF)
"From One Hell to Another" - George Peterson speaks to The Lance on his 94th birthday
Tribute to Robert "Flash" Clayton in the Orillia Packet and Times
2015 Trip to Hong Kong and Japan organized by Mike Babin. Still time to sign up!
Wasureru-Nai - Winter Edition of our National Newsletter is available
Fall Edition of our National Newsletter "Wasureru-Nai"
Check our submissions page: An account of the life of Hal Shepherd by Winston Smith. Stories I Tell
My Canadian Soldier - a short story published in the Jamaica Gleaner on Sept 14.
New book added to our reading list: Forgiveness by Mark Sakamoto
Plaza honours seven Battle of Hong Kong veterans from Arden Avenue -
Winnipeg Free Press
Read about Gander Heritage Memorial Park which will feature a full-sized statue of Sgt Gander
Summer Edition of our National Newsletter now available. Contains latest news on the status of the Memorial Wall repairs and name corrections
The Arden 7 Interpretive Plaza, located in Jules Mager Park, at the corner of St. Michael Road and River Road in Winnipeg will be unveiled at the site on Saturday, July 12, 2014 at 10 AM. All are most welcome to attend.
Canadian PoWs' song from Japanese camp gave hope during WW II. CBC
How a family was built on the basis of forgiveness. Globe and Mail.
Nathan Greenfield, who authored the book The Damned (dealing with the Battle of Hong Kong and the POW years), has now launched his new work: The Forgotten: Canadian POWs, Escapers and Evaders in Europe, 1939-45. It follows on the second half of The Damned.
The September edition of our National Newsletter "WASURERU-NAI" now available.
Draft minutes of the August General Meeting
Check out our Galleries site for a selection of photos taken at our recent convention in Winnipeg.
Phil Doddridge's Story: "Memories Uninvited" now hosted on this site.
Check out the Teachers' Zone for Writing Contest winners and their submissions!
The June edition of WASURERU-NAI, our national newsletter
Check out the latest link on our Submissions page which highlights student history projects focused on 'C' Force soldiers
BC Region News - including details of summer luncheons
Board of Directors online meeting results for April posted
The March 2013 Edition of WASURERU-NAI, our national newsletter now published
Yves Chevarie remembers his grandfather, Lauréat Bacon, on
CBC Radio-Canada (français)
Listen to wartime messages from POWs and an excellent interview with the daughter of Joseph Frenette RRC, Mona Thornton, on Peach City Radio"Lasting Legacy" - Gander Schools account of Sgt Gander
Journal of Sgt Porter K.E., WG, added to this site
Results of the January Board of Directors meeting posted
Our National Newsletter "Wasureru-Nai" December edition now available
Coverage (Ottawa Citizen) of Memorial Wall Ceremony on Dec 8
Check our Upcoming Events calendar for details of the Remembrance Service at the Memorial Wall in Ottawa on Dec 8th
Details of our online Board of Directors meetings from Sept and Oct
Added RRC War Diary
(PDF) to our site
The latest edition of our National Newsletter now online
Manitoba's Lieutenant Governor, Premier Honour Hong Kong Veterans
Just arrived at Barry's Emporium - a new shipment of golf shirts with our logo, and in various sizes.
Winners of the 2011-12 Cross Canada Writing Contest, along with
posted in the Teachers' Zone. Excellent work!
Who is this mystery HKVCA ambassador?
The June 2012 Edition of WASURERU-NAI, our national newsletter now published
Removed from home page: death notice: Charles "Bomber" Thompson, Honourary HKVA member, 14 Feb '12
WASURERU-NAI, our National Newsletter (March edition) available for your reading pleasure
Items of interest from our Board
of Directors online meeting of 15 March.
Our Image Gallery has been updated. Of special interest are photos graciously supplied by Tim Ko which show the display at the Museum of Coastal Defence in Hong Kong. There are other updates too.
BOD Meeting Results - Feb
"In Memoriam" section added below to inform visitors of the passing of HKVCA members
Web page created on the subject of the Japanese Apology
Letter of Thanks to our Veterans (PDF)- Christian Chan. Highly Recommended
Check out Hong Kong author Tony Banham's Blog where he's looking for help in identifying a tag "RRC 23" attached to a field telephone. (See the 4 Dec entry on the page for details)
Special Christmas Tree commemorates Battle of Hong Kong - Telegraph-Journal (New Brunswick)
To the Last Man ... Canadian Troops in the Battle of Hong Kong - Exhibition at the Museum of Coastal Defence, Hong Kong, 23 Dec to 20 June 2012 Poster (PDF)
A photo of two unknown Winnipeg Grenadiers has been posted on our Forum. Can anyone identify them?
November BOD Meeting Results posted
Globe and Mail: Messages: Cardboard discs carry voice of POW in Japan
Legion Magazine: HONG KONG: The Inside Story of Canada's Role in a Doomed Garrison
A New Book published:
The Home Front: Hopscotch & Heartache While Daddy Was at War Details...
From CTV Winnipeg 22 Oct: No living Hong Kong Vets attending gala in their honour
BOD Online meeting for Oct was cancelled due to lack of quorum
The Third Edition of the HKVCA Cross Canada Writing Contest is now underway. Letters containing all the relevant information are going out to educators across the country, and details can also be found in the Teachers' Zone. The deadline for entries is May 25, 2012. Urge High School students in your area to take part. Cash prizes are offered.
Edition of Wasureru-Nai, our National Newsletter
Photos of the renovated commemorative plaques in Hong Kong
Draft General Meeting minutes published
MB News: VICTORY OVER JAPAN OBSERVANCE AT ALL SAINTS ANGLICAN CHURCH
New links to UK websites dealing with Far East POWs (FEPOW) added to the links page.
Please note that due to installation of lighting there will be no ceremony at the Memorial Wall on Aug 15.
Convention 2011, 11-14 Aug Granby, PQ - hope to see you there! (Updated as of July 28th)
Convention Update - mail strike issues and assurances
Report of the Consul General of Canada to Hong Kong
June online edition of our National Newsletter WASURERU-NAI published
Latest BOD Meeting Results page available (also linked from the left sidebar on all pages)
New Book: Uncle Mac's Hong Kong Diary added to our
Suggested Reading page
Article from the Telegraph Journal: Belledune Memorial (PDF)Page added which lists site resources en français. This will be updated as translation resources permit
We've updated our Teachers' Zone.
Take a look at our
C. Douglas Johnston's (Lt, RRC) story added
Interviews of Hong Kong vets at the Memory Project
Ernie's Story: Biography of Ernie Hodkinson (WG) now available on our site
visit the VAC
Heroes Remember web site to view the collection of interviews of
Hong Kong Veterans. More will be added later.
Can you help Tyler Wentzell in his quest for information about Brigadier Lawson?
Little Hong Kong: Read how an ammunition bunker became a wine cellar
Telegraph-Journal - Tree in Campbellton park honours veterans
CBC Radio - interview with Nathan Greenfield and George MacDonell on 8 Dec, discussing comments made by Brigadier Wallis in his war diary (20 minutes)
WASURERU-NAI - our National Newsletter now online.
Larry Stebbe and George Peterson honoured - see Region News for details
The Oakville Beaver:
Honouring soldiers - past and present (scroll down to read details on Hong Kong)
Editorial in The Globe and Mail: Remembering our soldiers’ service in Hong Kong, highlighting Nathan Greenfield's efforts
Michael Palmer interviewed by CBC regarding his book Dark Side of the SunRemembrance Day Tribute: Paul Lai in the HKVCA Forum
Letter: Why don't our high school students study the Battle of Hong
The Globe and Mail - A Dieppe in the Far East - a review of Nathan Greenfield's book The Damned by JL Granatstein
BC Members tell Hong Kong story at BCSSTA Conference and attend Veterans' Week in Chilliwack - read more in Region News
Fundraising: updated brochure posted
BC Region to participate in Veterans' Week at Royal BC Museum 5-10 Nov. See Calendar for details.
Article "Shine a light on the Rape of Nanking" in the Globe and Mail discusses atrocity-denial in Japan.
Sept 2010: National Post - Matt Gurney: Japan bravely apologizes for tiny, tiny percentage of its crimes Read more...